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January 18, 2006

Dear Concerned Citizen,

Dr. Gerald Schroeder
side bar side bar side bar side bar With some courts deciding that ID cannot be taught in public schools, a gross misconception has been absorbed by the public. The courts have not determined that ID is wrong. Our courts do not adjudicate the truthfulness or falseness of theories, be they scientific, philosophic or theologic. What has been decided is that, correct or incorrect, true or false, teaching ID as a purely scientific theory is unconstitutional. The debate over the validity of ID is still very much alive.

For clarity, we'd best define the claims of ID. The soft version of ID avers that the hand of a designer can be seen in the complexity of life and in the laws of nature that are so perfect for nurturing it.

The more strict version of ID claims that there are processes active in our lives woven of such intricately interlocking steps that they could not have evolved sequentially. They must have been fabricated as a unit by an intelligent designer since the elimination of any one step would render the entire process ineffective and possibly deadly.

Irreducibly complex is the term applied to such processes. The clotting of blood is a classic example brought by ID'ers. However, as with most of these procedures, examples can be found in nature where only part of the weave is present and still the function is effective. For example, dolphins' blood clots even though dolphins lack one of the factors active in human blood clotting (Robinson et al, Science 166 : 1420, 1969; Davidson et al , J. of Thrombosis and Heamostasis 1 , 1487, 2003).

Apparently blood clotting as found in humans is not irreducibly complex. Dolphins have reduced the complexity.

The soft version of ID is more robust.
The complexity of life and the beautifully balanced laws of nature that allow for such variety to flourish call out for an explanation of their origins. And by demanding an explanation, ID has performed a great service. Aspects of existence that had been taken for granted by the populace are now being seen as wonders. Scientific discoveries of the past hundred years have explained the mechanisms behind many of these wonders of nature. But the explanation in no way diminishes the marvel of their and our existence. Science has filled in many of the gaps formerly explained by 'the God of the gaps.' But those scientifically discovered bridges, more often than not, lead to more marvel and mystery.

Though ID cannot be taught in public schools, the wonders of the world can and should be taught. Unfortunately, these wonders are often ignored.

Let's start at the beginning of the evolutionary process. We would do well to ponder in our schools the puzzle of why there is existence. We just take the fact of existence for granted. But think about it. Why is there anything, why is there a universe within which life may or may not have evolved, developed, rather than nothing? Why was there a big bang, a creation of the universe?

With that conundrum in place, we can address the next stage. Just what did the big bang produce? We know science thinks it was the beginning of time and space. But what about matter? The answer to that is considerably more enlightening, literally.

The big bang did not produce matter as we know it, not any of the 92 elements such as carbon and oxygen, and not the protons, neutrons or electrons that would eventually combine to make the 92 elements. The only material product of the big bang was exquisitely intense energy, something akin to super powerful light beams. Over eons of time, thanks to a transition discovered by Albert Einstein (that famous equation E = mc2 ), those light beams changed form, metamorphosed, and became solid matter and finally life itself.

Now that is a cause for wonder. It is science that discovered this reality, so we can teach it in the classroom. Light beams became alive, and not only became alive, but learned to feel joy, love, and self awareness. Of that fact there is no debate in science.

To elucidate the awesome and humbling implications of this incredible transition, consider the following, better understood, transition. In one hand I hold a clear glass jar containing oxygen gas. In my other hand I hold a jar of hydrogen gas.
I study the chemistry of these two gases and discover that under the correct conditions, they can combine to make water, H2O. Water looks nothing like oxygen and hydrogen, but it is. In parallel, we humans and all the matter we see about us may not look like light beams, but we are. We are made of the energy, the light beams, of the big bang creation, and no scientist will argue against this. It's not new age flaky talk, or guru wishing. It's established scientific reality. We are the condensed energy of the big bang creation. We witnessed that creation.

Our cosmic genesis began billions of years ago, first as beams of energy, then as parts of stars and the star dust of supernovae, then as the rocks and water and a few simple molecules on the surface of the earth, which in a geological blink of the eye became alive. We were not just observers to this fantastic flow toward life—we were part of it! And unlike the formerly accepted catechism that billions of years passed between the formation of the earth and the origin of life on earth, billions of years during which random reactions in fertile pools of water brimming with energy might have allowed life to evolve, the discoveries of Elso Barghoorn of Harvard University demonstrated that the oldest rocks that can bear fossils already have fossils of microbes, some caught in the act of mitosis. Life was invented in a snap.

We have been intimately within this magnificent universe since its inception. That is a fact worth pondering.

The wonder of life doesn't start with how a fish may or may not have become a frog. The wonder of life starts long before that, with the forming of a finely tuned stage on which life might play out its role.

The error of ID is that it limits the way a metaphysical reality, call it God, might interact with the physical. All our thoughts are couched within the box of the physical aspects of time space matter. There is no way we can think outside that box. The greatest of poets, philosophers, scientists all face this same limitation. How the metaphysical might or might not interact with the physical universe is not limited to the mechanisms we can conceive from within the box of our existence. Let's not confine God's power to what we can imagine.

The great value of the ID controversy is that it has forced upon the public an awareness of the magnificent wonder of life. The National Academy of Sciences recently referred to evolution as the best theory to explain how life developed. Since it is a theory, it would be best taught as such and not, as is so often the case, presented in the classroom as if it were a proven fact.

Teach evolution? No problem, just give all the facts. Including those for which there are no facile explanations. These might include discussions as to why there is existence rather than nothing at all, or, how could life filled with consciousness and the ability to feel love, joy, wonder arise from non-lining matter and even more alarmingly from the energy of the big bang creation. The basic problem in teaching evolution is that we get so involved with the minutiae, how a fish may or may not have become a frog, that we neglect the really crucial questions. Students aren't dumb. When all the facts are given, especially those for which there are no facile explanations, the students, and perhaps even teachers, will ask the questions for which there are no facile answers.


Responses to The Real Heroes:

As you probably know, typically about 80% of the money granted through micro-enterprise loans is given to women. Having visited in India, Rwanda and East Congo, I agree with the sense of the article and wonder about why we men sometimes behave, as a group, the ways we do. - G. W. M.

Thanks for printing my letter concerning "The Real Heroes". Although, I must admit that B.W.'s letter was more effective than mine because it does not stand on the claim that the United Nations is feminist. B.W. simply states that singling out one gender to be the hero is divisive and unproductive. I agree, even if that claim is being made by humanitarian organizations. There can be a number of reasons behind their claim. For example, giving attention to women brings in more money because people instinctively care about them more than men. Our post-feminist society doesn't have the sympathy for men that it does for women, so stories concerning men's problems don't make the news. Also, women can be the only ones giving or receiving aid in a war-torn area because most of the men and boys are dead. Please see www.gendercide.org. This site has articles that discuss the mass murder of battle-age men in regions such as Sudan, Rwanda, and Bosnia. All missionaries and caregivers should get the credit they deserve. Assigning credit to the female gender is unfair, even if most caregivers are female. The men deserve their thanks as well. Gender arguments aside, thanks for your article. It has challenged me to examine my life and do more to help the poor. Side note: The number of hits returned by Google is not good evidence for the strength of a topic. The search terms need only appear anywhere on the same web page to count as a hit. So "men and pregnancy" returns 24.4 million hits; "onion and satellite" returns 1.2 million hits. - J. L.

More favorite C.S. Lewis Quotes from tothesource readers:

"Aim at heaven and you'll get earth thrown in. Aim at earth and you'll get neither." - J. S.

Here's two of mine, plastered on my office wall:

"Can a mortal ask questions which God finds unanswerable? Quite easily, I should think. All nonsense questions are unanswerable. How many hours are there ina mile? Is yellow square or round? Probably half the questions we ask - half our great theological and metaphysical problems - are like that." - A Grief Observed, chapter IV

"What, then, is Nature, and how do we come to be improsoned in a system so alien to us? Oddly enough, the question becomes much less sinister the moment one realizes that Nature is not all. Mistaken for our mother, she is terrifying and even abominable. But if she is only our sister - if she and we have a common Creator - if she is our sparring partner - then the situation is quite tolerable." - Present Concerns: Essays by C. S. Lewis, "On Living in an Atomic Age" - K. T.

My favorite C. S. Lewis quote? How can one pick out a favorite note in a symphony? Nevertheless, one quote stands out as a dire warning of singular importance to our day more than to any other day in human history:

"...if man chooses to treat himself as raw material, raw material he will be..." (THE ABOLITION OF MAN, 72)

Other beauties to savor: On the Pilgrim's Journey
"Our Father refreshes us on the journey with some pleasant inns, but will not encourage us to mistake them for home." (THE PROBLEM OF PAIN, p. 116)

On Science vs. Christianity
"In science we have been reading only the notes to a poem; in Christianity we find the poem itself." (MIRACLES, 212)

On Good and Evil
"Good people know about good and evil: bad people do not know about either." (MERE CHRISTIANITY, 87)

On Perversions
"...you can see which is the perversion, because you can explain the perverted from the normal, and cannot explain the normal from the perverted." (MERE CHRISTIANITY, 50)

On Humility
[The humble man] will not be thinking about humility: he will not be thinking about himself at all. If anyone would like to acquire humility, I can, I think, tell him the first step. The first step is to realise that one is proud. And a biggish step, too. At least nothing whatever can be done before it. If you think you are not conceited, it means you are very conceited indeed. (MERE CHRISTIANITY, 114)

On Pain and Suffering
God whispers to us in our pleasures, speaks in our conscience, but shouts in our pain: it is His megaphone to rouse a deaf world. (THE PROBLEM OF PAIN, 91)

On Tests of Faith
In which sense may [my faith] be a house of cards? Because the things I am believing are only a dream, or because I only dream that I believe them? (A GRIEF OBSERVED, 39)

On wishing-I-had-the-right-response-at-hand-right-when-I-needed-it
There is no need to be worried about facetious people who try to make the Christian hope of "Heaven" ridiculous by saying they do not want "to spend eternity playing harps." The answer to such people is that if they cannot understand books written for grown-ups, they should not talk about them. All the scriptural imagery (harps, crowns, gold, etc.) is, of course, a merely symbolic attempt to express the inexpressible. Musical instruments are mentioned because for many people (not all) music is the thing known in the present life which most strongly suggests ecstasy and infinity. Crowns are mentioned to suggest the fact that those who are united with God in eternity share His splendour and power and joy. Gold is mentioned to suggest the timelessness of Heaven (gold does not rust) and the preciousness of it. People who take these symbols literally might as well think that when Christ told us to be like doves, He meant that we were to lay eggs. (MERE CHRISTIANITY, 120-121) - G. L.

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We live complex lives. We strive to sort out priorities that sometimes conflict or seem incompatible. A moral framework is needed to help us understand the reality around us. Our Judeo-Christian heritage provides a framework to help us comprehend the choices we make and the conflicts that arise over them. It is not only the main source of our spiritual values, but also many of the secular values we depend on.

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Gerald Schroeder   Gerald Schroeder
Gerald L. Schroeder is the author of Genesis and the Big Bang, The Science of God, and The Hidden Face of God. He earned his Ph.D. at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before moving to laboratories at the Weizmann Institute, the Hebrew University, and the Volcani Research Institute in Israel. His work has been reported in Time, Newsweek, Scientific American, and in leading newspapers around the world. He lives in Jerusalem with his wife and their five children.
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